Guba is a city in and the capital of the Guba district of Azerbaijan. The city lies on the north-eastern slopes of Shahdag mountain, at an altitude of 600 metres above sea level, on the right bank of the Kudyal river.
Guba was mentioned in works of various European geographers, in ancient Arabic and Albanian sources. The castle built by the ruler Anushiravan in the 11th century was called "Bade-Firuz Qubat", and in the Arabic sources of the XII century Guba was mentioned as "Cuba". In the 13th century, in the Dictionary of Geographical names of Arabian scientist Hamabi it was mentioned among the Azerbaijani cities as Kubba, and in the sources of 16th century Guba was referred to as "Dome".
Guba (Quba) city originated from the riverside village of Gudial. In the mid-18th century, after moving his residence from Khudat, Hussain Ali became Quba's Khan (tribal Turkic Muslim ruler) and raised fortress walls around the city. He thereafter attempted to create a state separate from other Azerbaijani khanates. The position of the Guba khanate grew stronger during the reign of Fatali Khan (1758–1789), son of Hussain Ali Khan.
Nevertheless, Guba Khanate, like other Transcaucasian khanates, was occupied by Czarist Russia in the early 19th century and formally annexed to the Russian Empire under the agreement of 1813. After the rehabilitation Guba was included in the Derbent province in 1840 and then in the Baku province in 1860.
Alexandre Dumas, Russian orientalist Berezin, the writer Bestuzhev-Marlinsky, the Norwegian scholar and adventurer Thor Heyerdahl visited Guba at the time.
Guba is also a center of carpet weaving industry. There is located a carpet making company called "Qadim Quba". The carpet "Golu Chichi" woven here in 1712 is now exhibited in the Metropolitan Museum in New York.
Guba is attractive with its green nature, forests and mountain areas which is a part of range of Caucasus Mountains. A village of Khinalug considered as one of the highest (more than 2000 metres above sea level) and isolated areas are located in Guba region and frequently visited by tourists. Popular waterfall Afurdja which's height is 75 metrs is also located in Guba. The Kudyal River which takes its sources from high altitudes of Caucasus mountains flows through the territory of Guba.
There is some amazing points of interest in Guba calls; Juma Mosque, Sakina-Khanum Mosque, Chuhur Hamam, The House-museum of Abbasgulu Bakikhanov, Portal Frame Bridge, Nizami Park and Olympic Complex. Most of tourist are visiting these places when they visit Guba. Guba is also one of the preferred tourist destinations because it is near the shahdag mountain.
Guba's cuisine has largely been affected by its multicultural history. Guba's signature cuisine includes Guba tıxması, spicy kebab, sacç Guba baklava and tandir kebab.
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